Taken From PubMed: "What is the central question of this study? Does 60 min of peristaltic pulse external pneumatic compression (EPC) alter gene and protein expression patterns related to metabolism, vascular biology, redox balance and inflammation in vastus lateralis biopsy samples? What is the main finding and its importance? A single bout of EPC transiently upregulates PGC-1α mRNA, while also upregulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein and nitric oxide metabolite concentrations in vastus lateralis biopsy samples. We investigated whether a single 60 min bout of whole-leg, lower pressure external pneumatic compression (EPC) altered select vascular, metabolic, antioxidant and inflammation-related mRNAs. Ten participants (eight male, two female; aged 22.0 ± 0.4 years) reported to the laboratory 4 h postprandial, and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before (PRE) and 1 and 4 h after EPC treatment. Messenger RNA expression was analysed using real-time RT-PCR, and significant mRNA findings were investigated further by Western blot analysis of respective protein concentrations. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mRNA increased by 77% 1 h following EPC compared with PRE levels (P = 0.005), but no change in protein concentration 1 or 4 h post-EPC was observed. Increases in endothelial nitric oxide sythase (eNOS) mRNA (+44%) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) mRNA (+57%) 1 h post-EPC as well as an increase in interleukin-10 mRNA (+132%) 4 h post-EPC compared with PRE levels were observed, but only approached significance (P = 0.076, 0.077 and 0.074, respectively). Interestingly, eNOS protein (+40%, P = 0.025) and nitrate and nitrite (NOx) concentrations (+69%, P = 0.025) increased 1-4 h post-EPC. Moreover, SOD2 protein tended to increase from PRE to 4 h post-EPC (+43%, P = 0.074), although no changes in tissue 4-hydroxnonenal levels was observed. An acute bout of EPC transiently upregulates PGC-1α mRNA, while also upregulating eNOS protein and NOx concentrations in vastus lateralis biopsy samples. Future research should characterize the origin of these responses (e.g. vascular or muscle fibre cells) and how the acute effects of EPC application on gene and protein expression observed herein are associated with functional improvements (e.g. metabolism, vascular function) in acute and chronic models."
Taken From Pub Med: "INTRODUCTION: External pneumatic compression (EPC) is being employed for a widening range of clinical and non-clinical populations. However, EPC devices vary markedly in treatment pressures, duty cycles and application sites, and the acute effects of whole limb, lower pressure EPC on peripheral vascular function have not been determined. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the acute effects of a single bout of peristaltic pulse EPC on peripheral conduit and resistance artery function. METHODS: Twenty (n = 20; males = 12 and females = 8) young and apparently healthy subjects (aged 26.1 ± 8.2 years) participated in this study. A sequential EPC device with five inflation zones arranged linearly and inflating distal to proximal along the lower limbs was employed with target inflation pressures of 70 mmHg for 1 h. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial and popliteal arteries was evaluated with ultrasound before and after EPC. Venous occlusion plethysmography was employed to evaluate limb blood flow at rest and during reactive hyperemia (RH) in the forearm (FBF) and calf (CBF) before and after EPC. RESULTS: Peak RH CBF was increased by 9 % after EPC (P < 0.05), whereas peak RH FBF (-10 %) did not change significantly (P > 0.25). Normalized popliteal artery FMD post-EPC (2.24 ± 1.41) was significantly higher than pre-EPC (1.36 ± 0.67, P = 0.015) and post-sham (1.58 ± 0.86, P = 0.032) values. Similarly, normalized brachial artery FMD post-EPC (1.47 ± 0.32) was significantly higher than pre-EPC (1.11 ± 0.41, P = 0.004) and post-sham (0.99 ± 0.27, P = 0.026) values. CONCLUSION: Acutely, whole limb, lower pressure EPC improves conduit artery endothelial function systemically, but only improves RH blood flow locally (i.e., compressed limbs)."